Journal of Reproducible Research <p><em>Journal of Reproducible Research (JRR</em>) with e-ISSN: 2948-5282, is an exclusive journal for original research, systematic reviews, meta data analysis papers that can be reproducible indefinitely for a proper cause. It is published by Vally Links Sdn. Bhd. as an initiative from World Research Union.</p> <p>We publish original research papers, meta-analysis works, scholarly literatures and systematic reviews that are reproducible. Reproducible research means that your work is published with datasets or algorithm codes so that others can verify the findings and build a new perspective or a concept. The original research manuscripts published in JRR are expected to bring new insights with new perspectives so that existing datasets are used widely before it gets obsolete.</p> <p><strong>Scope of Journal</strong></p> <p>JRR can be classified as premium diversified sciences journal. We intend to publish manuscripts pertaining to all fields of social sciences, STEM, arts which provides contribution to uplift or enhancing present medical knowledge. The submitted manuscripts has to include new and innovative experimental methods, primary researches, new interpretation of existing results or data related to clinical problems, or epidemiological work of substantial scientific significance. The motive is to build practical concepts rather performing basic or fundamental researches.</p> <p>Though JRR accepts all kinds of research works, but any incomplete studies or secondary researches are discouraged. Nevertheless, this shall be reviewed by our panel members (double-blind peer review process) before arriving to a decision. Authors are required to follow the format and typeset of JRR for the manuscript to be accepted for review.</p> World Research Union en-US Journal of Reproducible Research 2948-5282 <p>Copyright of the article belongs to <em>Journal of Reproducible Research (JRR)</em> once the paper is ACCEPTED for publication. Author(s) agrees to this terms, during submission.</p> Knowledge and use of Information Communication Technology in Libyan SMEs <p>Information and communications technology (ICT), conceived as the group of technologies that store, protect, manage, transfer, and transform information into useful knowledge that can be used for academic, business, economic, and organizational purposes, is the object of study in this paper, whose objective is to determine the knowledge and use of ICT in Libyan SMEs. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 207 corporate executives. The descriptive-explanatory methodology was used. The statistical technique was descriptive analysis; a structured survey was used as a data collection instrument. The various information systems used by managers and/or administrators for rational decision-making are, as we know, underutilized, accounting for less than 30% of the total number of technological tools available today. It is clear that the department of Tripoli needs to strengthen training programs on the matter, and it is also imperative that businessmen be updated on the benefits of these important technological tools, either at the initiative of the universities of the region or of the Chamber of Commerce of Libya. Finally, it was possible to extract that, within the group of those who use ICT tools, the most used are business intelligence, data warehouse, CRM, and, to a lesser extent, MRE</p> Almahdi Mosbah Almahdi Ejreaw Najiya B Annowari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 1 1 37 49 Research on the Relationship Between the Development of Start-up Companies and The Quality of Entrepreneurs <p>The development of small enterprises has always been the focus of economic departments in various countries. One of the important factors affecting the smooth transition of start-up companies in various stages of development is the quality of entrepreneurs. This paper will explore the various stages of the development of startups, and study the role of entrepreneurial quality in the development process of companies. Finally, it will put forward relevant suggestions on how to promote the stable development of startups and improve entrepreneurial quality.</p> Weiwei Qu Valliappan Raju Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 1 1 Analysis of Entrepreneurial Growth and Skill: Case Study on Global Innovation <table style="height: 429px;" width="869"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Nowadays, many people want to be a boss or an entrepreneur. This is because the Internet has allowed a lot of people to be more creative to create a new thing or innovate a new thing. The purpose of this special issue is to examine SMEs. Innovation and Entrepreneurship will show that while both of these. While these two concepts have their own specific literature and can be treated independently. Why I say like this, this is because there is a stream of literature so far that combines the concept of entrepreneurship with the ability to start a business, from business skills to business growth. The concept of entrepreneurship is combined with its ability to make new combinations of factors and corresponding process and product innovations. Similarly, in the extensive literature, the most important feature of entrepreneurship is its close association with small firms. Small firms and large firms have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of innovation, but small businesses provide the most conducive environment for innovation. Entrepreneurship and innovation are not necessarily sustained by the skills and resources that characterize large-scale production. It requires commitment and close cooperation among the members of the firm. In this introduction, we show how these two themes merge in two articles dealing with microenterprise analysis of growth cases and entrepreneurial innovation techniques. In general, the determinants of entrepreneurship and the determinants of the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs. The pandemic has slowed down the globe and at the same time they need to improve their countries to become advanced. At the same time, people have more ideas to innovate and don't want to be a worker. So now let me show you more answers.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Lim Hooi Kee Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 1 1 90 93 The The Role of Organizational Challenges and Technical Challenges on the Implementation of E-government Military Institutions <p>Purpose: This study aimed to find out the challenges and barriers to the implementation of the e-<br>governance in the Yemeni military institutions. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to the</p> <p>study topic. A conceptual framework was proposed that contained two independent variables that<br>represent the challenges, which were (organizational challenges and technical challenges). The<br>descriptive analytical approach was used in this study; it is one of the most used methods in the study<br>of social and human phenomena, and because it fits the phenomenon under study. It also examines an<br>existing phenomenon or issue from which information can be answered to answer study questions,<br>without the intervention of the researcher. For this research, the instrument used to collect data from<br>the research sample in Yemen in regards to the implementation of E-governance. The measurement of<br>the direct impact of the independent variables (organizational challenges and technical challenges) on<br>the implementation of e-governance in military institutions in Yemen. Smart PLS has been used to<br>conduct statistical analysis from the primary data. Several tests have been conducted for the collected<br>data. The main resultsfound that there is a negative and significant relationship between organizational<br>challenges and the Implementation of E-Governance in the Yemeni military institutions. Also, there is a</p> <p>negative and significant relationship between organizational challenges and the Implementation of E-<br>Governance in the Yemeni military institutions. It is proposed that the organizational and technical</p> <p>challenges for the implementation of the Electronic Government, has the organizational factor, as the<br>main barrier factor, it is recommended that the military institutions implement policies for the<br>dissemination of online services to avoid that the members of the military have to move From their<br>home, it is observed that the institutional factor is also important, this can be improved by assigning a<br>greater economic budget to innovate in the development of Electronic</p> Aref Dahwan Valliappan Raju Salina Kassim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 1 1 9 21 10.58288/jrr.v1i1.5 Entrepreneurship and Innovation – A Review <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>COVID 19 has nudged entrepreneurs to review, adapt and make use of a variety of marketing channels, including online, mobile, and advertising. Furthermore, in order to promote growth, business owners must develop crucial skills, such as a dedication to providing customers with value, the capacity to select from a variety of marketing techniques, and the capacity to obtain additional venture capital. Additionally, it emphasizes the significance of enhancing HR policies and employee compensation, as well as the necessity of peer mentoring, access to networks, financial resources, and global markets. Literature review involving relevant studies and articles for entrepreneurs and examining the current state by focusing on key themes. Research methods include case studies and literature review. The focus of this paper is that growth-oriented entrepreneurs should focus on developing the following key entrepreneurial skills: a commitment to providing customers with value through innovative products and services; appropriate marketing strategies; learning how to access more venture capital; improving company HR practices and financial incentives for employees; staying motivated to grow the business; seeking peer mentoring; and having greater access to networks, finance, and international markets.</strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mahendra Rasadurai Valliappan Raju Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-03-05 2023-03-05 1 1 83 89 Entrepreneur Ability And Firm Growth <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>As the micro foundation of the national economy, enterprise's rapid and sustained growth is not only the goal pursued by most enterprises, but also one of the key factors to promote economic growth and social prosperity. Therefore, the problem of enterprise growth has always attracted extensive attention from entrepreneurs and many scholars. Many scholars have elaborated the factors that affect the growth of enterprises from different perspectives. As time goes by, more and more scholars realize that entrepreneurs, as the soul of an enterprise, inevitably play an irreplaceable role in the growth process of an enterprise. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the internal mechanism of private enterprise growth from the perspective of entrepreneur ability.</p> <p>Through case studies and theoretical studies, this paper discusses the importance of entrepreneurial skills, the abilities needed for entrepreneurial growth, and how entrepreneurs overcome the current challenges.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Hexuan Gao Valliappan Raju Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 1 1 61 66 Factors to Improve Customer Loyalty towards Yemeni Student Recruitment Agencies in Malaysia <p>Purpose – Based on several previous academic and business research, this study aims to deliver the understanding of the concept of customer loyalty. In this study, it will be conducted to provide a conceptual framework to explore how relationship quality dimensions and service quality affect customer loyalty through the mediating of customer engagement in student recruitment agencies context. Based on previous studies, it will propose relationship quality and service quality as a comprehensive meaning and customer engagement just as a mediator to enhance loyalty. Design/methodology/approach – The study reviews several previous studies and ends up with the conceptual framework to discuss more applied of relationship marketing and servqual theory to measure customer satisfaction, trust, commitment, communication, and service quality through the quantitative method. Findings – Focusing on the current literature studies of relationship quality dimensions, service quality, and customer engagement enhance the understanding of customer loyalty. So the proposed conceptual framework of the mediating of customer engagement is a very vital role to strengthen the correlation between the factors and customer loyalty. Originality/value – The contribution of the conceptual framework will explain the role of customer engagement on the relationship between satisfaction, trust, commitment, communication, and service quality on customer loyalty. It can be added value on how customer engagement plays a very important role in the recruitment agencies industry which leads to the increasing number of customer</p> Yosra alkhaled Valliappan Raju Salina Kassim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 1 1 50 60 The effect of firm size, profitability, liquidity and industry type on firm value <p>The study aims to investigate the relationship between firm characteristics (firm size, profitability, liquidity, and industry type) and firm value in Saudi Arabia for the period 2019–2021. A regression analysis was done to estimate the relationship between these factors and firm value. The sample used in the study is 10 companies from 8 various industries over the period of 2019–2021, chosen randomly. The results reveal that firm size and liquidity have a negative relationship with firm value, but profitability and industry type have a positive relationship with firm size. The results will benefit investors, policymakers, and researchers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Loulwah Alfawazan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 1 1 94 102 The Influence of Career Advancement and Information Sharing on Employees' Engagement in Yemen Banking Sector <p>Employee engagement can be boosted by good HR practices. Complementary action can be gained by an organisation that provides training, compensation, career development, and equal and fair policies that meet the needs of its employees. Employees become more engaged. To address consumer needs, many service firms rely on information sharing techniques to enhance staff creativity. This study was carried out in Yemen’s banking sector to see if an information sharing system that recorded workers’ creative work improved the quality of their work, workplace engagement, and career development. This study underpinning theory, social exchange theory was used. Smart-PLS was used to evaluate the hypothesis using structural equation modelling using partial least squares. A five-point Likert scale was employed in the questionnaire to quantify all variables for data collection, and the structured questionnaire was utilised to measure the variables.</p> Hatem Atef Valliappan Raju Salina Kassim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 1 1 22 32 10.58288/jrr.v1i1.6 Eb Business intelligence technology success factors determine business performance within Libyan commercial businesses <p><br>The present article has the primary goal is to determine the impact of business intelligence on the performance of commercial societies in Libya. The empirical method of linear regression was applied to the data from primary sources on a sample of 384 commercial companies. To that end, the formulated questions correspond to the questionnaire used by Ahumada and Perusquia (2016), which consists of 37 questions based on the variables established in aim's study to determine the general hypothesis. To obtain more precise deductions, different questions were introduced based on the control variables. The findings revealed that business intelligence interventions are positively associated with business performance. Market Stall's financial indicators showed statistically that there is a high level of significance in relation to the independent variable. On the other hand, age, size, and human capital are other factors that influence the optimum performance of companies.</p> Ebrahem Ali Elburase Belaid Mohammed Addokali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-02-22 2023-02-22 1 1 71 82 Abdulgawad. H.A.busadra Libyan national football assessment and future prospective <p>Rankings of individual players and teams are an essential component of competition and serve as its foundation. They allow the parties concerned to keep track of their development and set up intriguing pairings. Most significantly, competition scheduling is done using the official standings. In association football, it is typical for a draw to be conducted to establish the game schedule for major tournaments and their qualifying stages. Teams with better rankings are typically partnered with teams with lower rankings. In this approach, rankings have a significant influence on the contest. Less powerful opponents are expected to be faced by the teams at the top of the list. This paper reviews the current status of national Libyan football, identifies the obstacles, and makes recommendations for achieving a better ranking globally.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ABDULGAWAD BUSADRA Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 1 1 67 70 Pratt Software's Phonological Characteristics, Prosodic Features, and Importance <p><em>Pratt is computer software that helps phoneticians </em><em>synthesize</em><em>, edit, and analyse speech. Phoneticians, sociolinguists, as well as&nbsp;phonologists all </em><em>utilize</em><em>&nbsp;this software. With the aid of this software, one&nbsp;can perform spectral, pitch,&nbsp;&nbsp;formant, &nbsp;and intensity evaluations as well as detect jitters, shimmers, and&nbsp;voice breaks. It can change the form of files and enhance some of their existing qualities. A track's frequencies can be changed and it can be made stereo or mono with this </em><em>Pratt</em><em>&nbsp;software. With the help of this feature, one can produce high-quality illustrations for use in academic research articles. For speech analysts that favour in-depth research, it is a more effective instrument. The sound tracks are edited and can be changed to suit the preferences and needs.</em><em>&nbsp;The Praat software's best feature, the scripting language, will help to automate the necessary tasks that it can carry out. The dialectal background determines whether learning a new language as well as its prosodic qualities is successful or unsuccessful. Intonations are influenced by pitch levels. Accent mispronunciation is solely caused by incorrect pitch patterns. The varying intentions are indicated by the variation in pitch levels. Linguistic and phonetic elements combine to form intonation. Tonal patterns serve a variety of linguistic purposes. The computerized learning utilizes phonetic acoustic hardware and software, concentrating on speech assessment patterns. The improvements in speech technology showed even better ways to reveal&nbsp;the prosodic intonation qualities. Software for computer-assisted language learning (CALL) allows for the visual representation of speech graphically the sound waveform and pitch contours.&nbsp;The visual displays and speech evaluations were presented by the software. The researcher's emphasis and area of interest were therefore the prosodic characteristics and intonation contours, which led to improved outcomes. It was found through research using the Praat software to evaluate intonation contour perception that conceptualizing pronunciation elements was extremely helpful. Speech is organized hierarchically by prosody, which is evoked by characteristics of suprasegmental acoustics. It has both phonetic and&nbsp;phonological &nbsp;characteristics. Features like stress, duration tone and, intonation,&nbsp;are determined by suprasegmental acoustic qualities. Praat is practical software that enables the user to alter and achieve the required phonetic and sound engineering values and levels.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Raju Annamalai Arrunkumar Kalathinathan Mangai Vally Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Reproducible Research 2022-11-02 2022-11-02 1 1 1 7 10.58288/jrr.v1i1.4